Whether having the MTHFR gene mutation, or other causes of a methylation issue, here are questions to ask yourself:

Have you ever had high iron with low ferritin?

Have you had above range iron, B12, folate, selenium, high heavy metals?

Do you have a family history of cancers, strokes, heart disease, etc?

There are four parts below to explain the above issues, which are about “not breaking things down for use or removal” in your body–aka methylation.

Part One: MTHFR mutation
Part Two: Other mutations
Part Three: Poor nutrient levels
Part Four: Stress

Note: below is copyrighted to Stop the Thyroid Madness about the MTHFR mutation and other methylation causes. It is against the law to copy and paste as if it’s your way of presenting this information.  Please have the integrity not to do that. 

PART ONE: the problem with the MTHFR gene mutation

In 2003, a genetic study called the Human Genome Project was completed. And via that study, they discovered that an important gene towards your health and well-being, called the MTHFR gene, aka methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase can have mutations. Some state more than 60% of us have an MTHFR mutation/variant, and we look for it as C677T and A1298C in a gene test like 23andme.com (and yes, most of us end up calling it the dirty word gene—lol).

i.e. this gene, when working correctly, results in good levels of B-vitamins like folate (B9), and is active in breaking down heavy metals or toxins. When the MTHFR gene is not working correctly, it means it’s less active. You might have low levels of folate, increased levels of homocysteine in your blood, plus elevated levels of iron, or B12, or heavy metals…or a family history of heart problems or cancers to name a few, because heavy metals and toxins aren’t being eliminated from the body.

GEEK INFO #1: When it’s all working right (and it can be for awhile even with the mutation), the MTHFR gene begins a multi-step chemical breakdown process, aka methylation, which is like this:

  • The MTHFR gene produces the MTHFR enzyme. The latter enzyme works with folate (B9), breaking it down from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
  • 5-methyltetrahydrofolate helps convert the amino acid homocysteine to another essential amino acid, methionine, which is used by your body to make proteins, utilize antioxidants, and to assist your liver to process fats. Methionine helps with depression and even inflammation. It also helps convert estradiol (E2) into estriol (E3)!
  • Methionine is converted in your liver into SAM-e (s-adenosylmethionine), which is anti-inflammatory, supports your immune system, helps produce then breakdown of your brain chemicals serotonin, dopamine and melatonin, and is involved in the growth, repair and maintenance of your cells.
  • i.e. all the latter helps eliminate toxins and heavy metals, which can reduce your risk for cancer, heart disease and other health issues, and put less stress on your adrenals.

GEEK INFO #2: But here’s what an activated MTHFR mutation does to you:

  • It produces a defective MTHFR enzyme of different varieties i.e. it functions less than optimally, such as performing at only 40% of its capacity, or 70% of its capacity. It can mean you won’t break down toxins or heavy metals well when it’s activated, causing a higher risk for issues like heart problems, cancers, miscarriages, etc. i.e. you could find yourself with high iron, or high copper, or high lead, or high mercury, or high uranium…it varies from person to person.
  • The defective enzyme (especially 677) doesn’t break down folate (B9) properly, which can cause high homocysteine, which can increase your risk of coronary heart disease (arteriosclerotic vascular disease or venous thrombosis), and related heart and BP conditions, as well as increasing your risk for dementia.
    • Homocysteine is now poorly converted to glutathione, which is your body’s chief antioxidant and detoxifier. You are then more susceptible to stress and toxin buildup.
    • Homocysteine can be poorly converted to methionine, and less methionine can raise your risk of arteriosclerosis, fatty liver degenerative disease, anemia (see Wiki), increased inflammation, increased free radical damage… and produce less SAM-e. Less SAM-e can increase depression
  • And more broadly, an MTHFR activated mutation can increase your risk of a variety of cancers (including breast and prostate cancer), stroke, various heart problems, congenital defects, depression, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), miscarriages, migraines, chemical sensitivities and many conditions.
  • You can find yourself with high folate or high B12 i.e. your body will have problems converting inactive forms of folate and B12 to the active forms. So the inactive folate or B12 will simply build up in your serum, also inhibiting the active forms. The most common between the two is high B12, and you can have “low B12 symptoms” since it’s not being broken down for use…such as numbness in fingers, numbness in legs. By the way, most serum folate tests are actually measuring folic acid, which needed to be converted to methylfolate to be used metabolically.
  • The journal Molecular Psychiatry states that “Schizophrenia-like syndromes, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia have all been associated with one or more mutations of the MTHFR gene”. (2006;11, 352:360)
  • People often notice a family history of heart problems or cancers when this mutation is being passed down.

What MTHFR gene mutations am I looking for?

The two most problematic MTHFR methylation mutations are on the C677T and A1298C locations on the MTHFR gene. You will also sometimes just see them written as just 677 and 1298. Gene mutations are passed down by your mother and/or your father. Most literature states there are a good 40-50 different mutations of this important methylation gene which could be passed down by one, or both or your parents.

There are many combinations of MTHFR methylation mutations:

  • Homozygous: means you have both copies of either the 677 mutation, or the 1298 mutation, one from each parent.
  • Heterozygous: means you have one copy of either the 677 mutation, or the 1298 mutation, plus a normal one from the other parent.
  • Compound Heterozygous: means you have one copy of the 677 mutation from one parent and one copy of the 1298 mutation from the other parent.
  • Triple heterozygous mutations (more rare): an example would be one C677T, one A1298C, and a P39P or R594Q, for example.

MORE GEEK INFO: here are possible combinations:

  • Normal/Normal for both 677 and 1298 🙂
  • Heterozygous 1298 / Normal 677 (i.e. one parent passed down a single 1298 mutation)
  • Homozygous 1298 / Normal 677 (i.e. both parents passed down the 1298 mutation)
  • Heterozygous 677 / Normal 1298 (i.e. one parent passed down a single 677 mutation)
  • Homozygous 677 / Normal 1298 (i.e. both parents passed down the 677 mutation)
  • Heterozygous 677 / Homozygous 1298 (one parent passed down the 677 mutation; both passed down the 1298)
  • Homozygous 677 / Heterozygous 1298 (both parents passed down the 677 mutation; one passed down the 1298)
  • Heterozygous 677 / Heterozygous 1298 (Compound Heterozygous: one parent passed 677; one passed 1298)
  • Homozygous 677 / Homozygous 1298 (Compound Homozygous, meaning you have two 677, two 1298)

Are you overwhelmed yet?

Dr. Ben Lynch states that being homozygous A1298C or compound heterozygous MTHFR means there is a high chance the mutation is being strongly passed down via your your family members who also have the problem.1.

Janie Bowthorpe has noticed that even simply having one mutation with A1298C can eventually start expressing itself, especially as our bodies age, but risk is much lower than having two mutations or the 677, or both.


1. The most definitive way to find out is genetic testing. And a popular self-ordered test comes from 23andme. After the 23andme results come back, you’ll get “raw data” that you won’t be able to read well. You will upload that data to any of the following, which in turn will give you what you need:

  • Live Wello–a favorite: it gives a you a great deal of information based on 23and me, plus links to learn more about each gene’s potential problem. Also use the Search bar to see if you have other mutations that aren’t shown at first.
  • Genetic Genie, which will look at your methylation genetics just by reading your 23andMe raw data. But not as detailed as Live Wello
  • Nutrahacker.…though it doesn’t interpret the raw data the way Live Wello does above, Nutrahacker will tell you what supplements you need to take, and which ones plus more you need to avoid, due to your mutations.
  • Sterling Hill’s app http://www.mthfrsupport.com/sterlings-app/ or you can contact her and pay for a call to help with interpretation of your genetics.

2. Ancestry DNA will offer some methylation snps that as of August 30, 2017, 23andMe doesn’t offer anymore. 23andme DOES STILL OFFER the MTHFR 677 and 1298, and some people are still occasionally seeing the snps not offered anymore, but that will eventually end. See this. You still upload the raw data to the above.

3. Another clue is to do hair testing. Direct Labs has a “toxic hair test” you can order on your own. Though genetic testing above is a must, it’s always interesting to see what heavy metals are not being broken down because of the MTHFR mutation, plus gives you a baseline to refer to later to see if your treatment is working.

4. Dr. Amy Yasko will test about 30 methylation SNP’s (single nucleotide polymorphisms), here. You may need a doctor’s prescription. It is considered to be a highly accurate test, but can be more expensive than the more popular 23andme test above.

A vast amount of genetic information can be obtained from www.promethease.com

Another good test to see which processes may not be doing their job properly: Methylation Pathways Panel. And here is discussion about this.

Another informative test is the NutrEval, which will test your antioxidants, B Vitamins, digestive support, essential fatty acids, and minerals, plus amino acids via a urine collection. Expensive, but oh to informative.

Is it possible my MTHFR problem is more about inadequate B2?

Dr. Neil Nathan explores this possibility here: https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/2019/02/26/mthfr-just-riboflavin-deficiency/

PART TWO: Other mutations which can cause you problems in breaking down B12, iron etc.

i.e. after doing 23andme and uploading to a website like livewello.com, there are methyl-related genes you need to look into.

  1. CBS: When doing its job correctly, the CBS gene will convert homocysteine into cystathionine, and this pathway removes sulfur containing amino acids. When it’s not doing its job correctly, you could have an excess of sulphur, which can cause kidney damage. Experts strongly recommend avoiding processed foods if you have this mutation, since they can have high amounts of sulphur. This mutation can also cause low serotonin and dopamine, and make you sensitive to chemicals. Some people with a CBS mutation can seem to feel wired with the version of B6 called P5P, so they have to start much lower. Conversely, one can have an elevated, “up-regulated” CBS pathway, resulting in excess ammonia, urinary sulfates, and lowered breakdown of glutathione. (Janie has that one)
  2. SUOX: When working correctly, this gene oxidizes sulfite to sulfate. If this gene has a mutation, it can mean you have inadequate levels of molybdenum and can have reactions to foods which are rich in sulfur/sulfites. i.e. like CBS, your can have too high levels of sulphur.
  3. MTRR and MTR: An active mutation with MTRR affects your B12 negatively, meaning you could use B12 supplementation if it’s active. I am homozygous for MTRR rs1801394, so I watch my B12 carefully and take it. An MTR mutation affects our folate negatively. And both B12 and folate are needed for good methylation….
  4. COMT, MAO-A and MAO-B: Mutations here can negatively affect how your body responds to stress, which in turn can negatively affect your methylation. I, Janie, has several snps in these very genes which causes me to run on adrenaline, and can explain why my methyl pathways started misbehaving. For example, a mutation in the COMT gene can result in lower tolerance to stress (which can affect methylation), as well a lowered ability by your body to remove catechols like excess dopamine, estrogen, and/or norepinephrine. For example, I tend to get estrogen dominance easily because of my COMT mutations, and have to take DIM daily to counter that problem. I also have to mostly avoid caffeine when I can. Good info about COMT here. I personally need to take calming herbs and supplements daily to counter how these mutations lower my ability to cope well with stress. MOA protein mutations also cause problems in the breakdown of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and even serotonin–the feel good chemical. Technical info on MAO here.
  5. AHCY — an active mutation in this gene, whether one copy or two, could shut down those methylation pathways! It’s L-methionine, an essential amino acid, that is recommended as a supplement to assist your folate to help produce L-glutathione. It’s also recommended to take it at bedtime, since it can make some people sleepy.
  6. VDR It’s said that 25% of us can have a VDR mutation, and can often mean that sunlight won’t give enough Vitamin D. The VDR mutation can mean a person can be less sensitive to methyl group supplement levels [Amy Yasko] and these VDR mutations oppose COMT mutations in the regulation of dopamine levels. The “VDR bsmrs1544410 mutation can mean that though you are converting vitamin D to the active from called D 1,25 (which is good), your total vitamin D can be low since it’s all being converted to the active. And if a doctor ONLY checks the total D, he or she may wrongly tell you to take more vitamin D when you don’t need it. Here’s a less-then-two-minute video explanation. I tend to need 10,000 IU’s of D five times a week to keep my D level up.
  7. GPX — if you have an active mutation here, you may be having a problem producing L-glutathione, a needed and powerful antioxidant, and would need supplementation. Glutathione is needed for methylation.
    More info here.

How to treat mutated methylation genes

You can’t change a defective gene. But you can help it do its job better and minimize problems.

For the MTHFR mutation, it’s strongly recommended to avoid folic acid supplements and in foods, and instead favor folate in supplementation, especially if you are homozygous MTHFR (having a copy of the same defective gene from each parent). Healthy foods that contain folate should be okay, as would be the active form of folate called methylfolate as a supplement, also called 5-MTHF (5-methyltetrahydrofolate). But we need to start low, such as 400 mcg or less. You don’t want to methylate too fast.

B12 might also be high due to an active MTHFR mutation along with an active COMT mutation, so patients tend to avoid the synthetic supplemental version of B12 called cyanocobalamin and instead favor the methylcobalamin (methylB12) or adenosylcobalamin (also the active form, but used by your mitochondria), but they will need adequate folate supplementation. Again, all the latter is simplified and you will need to seek more detailed information from a qualified practitioner or even some of the excellent website and forums on MTHFR.

Another good B-vitamin is the methyl version of B6, called P-5-P...but again, it’s important to start low and build in low amounts. Due to certain methyl snps, not everyone tolerates it well unless it’s low (the latter is also Janie)

Dr. Ben Lynch feels that “repairing the digestive system and optimizing the flora should be one of the first steps in correcting methylation deficiency”2, and that especially includes treating candida because of the toxins it releases, inhibiting proper methylation.

Some experts recommend eating clean, such as Paleo or the GAPS diet.

Avoiding exposure to toxins is important! Look at your household cleaning supplies, for example, or toxic glues you may be using, and more.

**If adding methyl B’s cause you to over-methylate, taking time-released Niacin, 50 mg can slow it down, say some experts. Symptoms of over-methylation can include muscle pain or headaches, fatigue, insomnia, irritability or anxiety.

Minerals play a key role in several enzymatic functions. Vitamin C helps reduce oxidants. Molybdenum (500 mcg) helps break down excess sulfates and sulfites from the CBS and SUOX active mutations.

It is very, very important to avoid high stress and/or quit pushing yourself, as stress can negatively affect your body’s ability to remove toxins.

This website http://www.knowyourgenetics.com/ offers suggestions on how to treat your mutations.

***And here’s an excellent website to upload your 23andme raw data to because it tells you what supplements to take and/or avoid: https://www.nutrahacker.com/

PART THREE: poor levels of nutrients can cause methylation issues

We know that folate and B12 are strongly needed by your body to improve our ability to break down metals and toxins. But other nutrients need to be good, too, and these are gleaned from medical articles, sites, books, such as:

  • betaine, aka Trimethylglycine (TMG)- helps to break down homocysteine into methionine (see below)
  • choline- it’s oxidized down to betaine, above
  • cysteine – an amino acid that comes from the breakdown of methionine and can convert to glutathione which sticks to toxins and heavy metals and carry them out of the body
  • DHA- omega-3 which helps counter non-genetic negative influences on your genes
  • lithium – help bring B12 to your cells
  • magnesium –needed for the proper breakdown of toxins and metals
  • methionine- an amino acid needed for methylation (Janie found her methionine levels low)
  • B3 (niacin) – helps remove toxins, but don’t take too much
  • potassium – helps counter over-methylation, but not about taking too much
  • B6 (pyridoxine) – important for most of the methylation reactions
  • B2 (riboflavin) – in several ways it helps with methylation
  • sulphur – is key to methylation and the breakdown of toxins, and is what glutathione is made up of
  • taurine – stress-lowering which is important for good methylation
  • zinc – helps improve methylation turn-over

PART FOUR: Stress can cause methylation issues

Are you currently under chronic high stress?? That alone can cause methylation problems. Thus why it’s so important to either eliminate the source of constant stress, or modify it, or change your reaction to it. Not easy, but do-able.

Here’s a study on how early life stress can cause methylation issues.

This Wiki article (scroll down once there) has good details about how stress can negatively affect your methylation.

ABOUT High Copper/Low zinc

This can be a common finding when you have an MTHFR defect (or other methylation snps)—a high level of copper, which will conversely mean your zinc levels will fall. And since the ratio of these two metals is highly important, correcting the problem is crucial, since high copper can be related to hyperactivity, depression, fearful ruminating thoughts, headaches, acne, frequent colds due to lowered immunity, sensitive skin and/or bruising, worsening hypothyroid, adrenal stress and more.

High copper can also make it difficult to raise iron levels, or keep those levels where they should be.

Vitamin C is known to help lower high levels of copper via detoxing, but patients report they need to go low and slow to tolerate the detoxing. Zinc is also used the same way—to encourage the lowering of copper, but the same caution with detoxing applies. Lawrence Wilson, MD recommends a nutritional approach to correcting the imbalance: remove IUD’s, avoid high copper foods like chocolate, seeds and avocados, avoid stress and more. Work with your doctor.

Note: you can have high copper/low zinc without the cause being MTHFR. This happened to Janie Bowthorpe due to mold inhalation—the latter caused her RBC zinc to plummet, which causes copper to raise—a fact she found out much later…

What does SNP mean??

As you get to reading about all your genes, you may see the acronym SNP used a lot (sounds like snip). It stands for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. And SNP is basically another word for a mutation in your gene.

NOTE FROM JANIE BOWTHORPE: I have one copy of the 1298 MTHFR mutation and never had a problem, until the stress of mold exposure followed by having to detox high copper seemed to make it either it alive, or other methylation mutations come alive (COMT, MTRR and more), or lowered my nutrients. My B12 suddenly went sky high, yet I had classic symptoms of low B12—it wasn’t being broken down for use. Found out my Methionine was low, and supplementation has helped to bring down the high B12, I’m still work in progress.

Real stories

Read Mary’s story.

Have your own story? Send it to Janie using the Contact below!

More to read

Facebook group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/230824260340671

A map of all the possible methylation pathways.

Symptoms of methionine deficiency

Dr. Ben Lynch’s MTHFR website with forums, too.

National Library of Medicine MTHFR information page

Informative Support website– Also has forum.

Detailed notes this mother took about MTHFR and methylation from a Dr. Ben Lynch lecture.

Other gene mutations like CBS that need to be addressed before getting too serious with MTHFR

Good info here on methylation:


  1. http://mthfr.net/mthfr-a1298c-mutation-some-information-on-a1298c-mthfr-mutations/2011/11/30/
  2. http://mthfr.net/category/rants-raves-mthfr/

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